less ambitious, and less restless. Such characteristics, it should be emphasized, are to be considered independently of general intelligence or willingness to conform to the norms of the village or small-town environments.
Kuznets (36, pp. xxxii), as an economist, places considerable importance on this trait of willingness to assume risk. His argument is as follows:
Let us assume that, on balance, the in-migrant group, at least in some countries and in many periods, has a greater proportion than the resident population of adventurous and independent individuals capable of adjusting to a variety of circumstances, and also a larger proportion of individuals responsive to economic opportunities and attractions even if qualified by a substantial risk element (necessarily present in the case of most internal migration). If we assume further that the personality characteristics and the greater orientation to economic opportunities involved in such selectivity make for long-term prospects of greater productivity and efficiency, then again it follows that internal migration implies not merely the assured economic growth implicit in supplying the man for the job but further growth resulting from a process of selection that promises an extra gain of productivity over and above the .assumption of unselected migration.
Note the qualifications Kuznets introduces. "On balance" means that not all of the individuals who rank high on risk-taking propensity will leave and not all those ranking low will remain. He is careful not to make this feature of migration an invariant property by stating, "at least in some countries and in many periods." And a major unstated assumption is that there is a job awaiting the man at the new destination. More than that, it is a job allowing for initiative and permitting increases in productivity. The appropriateness of these assumptions as they would apply to most large cities in developing areas will be challenged by many, but Kuznets, in fairness to his position, really is addressing himself to a prior question, "if we assume that the labor needed for the newly emergent production opportunities in a rapidly growing area can be drawn from the resident population, would the alternative of employing newcomers still be preferable?" (36 pp. xxx). He says yes, in part because of the importance he ascribes to the quality of venturesomeness.
Change in Migrant Selectivity
The point has been made that it is not only important to look for migrant selectivity; it is also necessary to determine if the selectivity itself changes over time. Unfortunately, the evidence is minimal on this question, since adequate information on migrant selectivity is not often available for one point in time, much less as a time series.
Excepting the sex ratio, the various forms of migratory selectivity tend to go together. Thus, the young migrate, and being young, they are more likelys are more migratory than males," butThe conclusion to be drawn from this is that if economic opportunity and living conditions in the cities were to be improved, return migration rates would he lower.an, et al. (1 3, Ch. 1). Substantively, Ghana differs from Mexico in the predominantly male rural-urban migration, in the multilingual character of the society, in the existence of polygamy, and